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Brazil

Brazil is the largest and most populous country in South America. The first vineyards were planted by Portuguese immigrants in 1532, and in 1626 Jesuit priests introduced Spanish grape varieties that failed to yield satisfactory quality due to the hot and humid climate. Much late, in the 18th century Portuguese immigrants from Azores brought varieties from Madeira and those also failed to thrive. Humidity and disease resistant American hybrids, e.g Isabella, thrived, but yielded mediocre quality wines at best.
In 1870 Italian immigrants established extensive vineyards in Sierra Gaucha in southern Brazil abutting the Uruguay border. Moet et Chandon from France started producing sparkling wines in 1970’s, and ever since many wineries switched at least some of their output to this style.
Today, more than any other style, sprinkling wine production dominates the industry. Some of the best are made using traditional varieties e.g chardonnay, pinot noir, pinot meunier, but some very attractive sparkling wines are made from glera, Italian riesling, trebbiano and viognier, and blends thereof. Even some cabernet sauvignon and merlot are used.
Approximately 50 per cent of sparkling wines are made by the Champagne method. The biggest producers focus on brut wines, containing 8 – 15 grams of residual sugar per liter.
Brazil is spread over a vast territory and has varied climatic conditions. Rio Grande de Sul was the first region, and expanded to Planalto Catarinense just north of Porto Allegre, Campos de Cuna da Serra, Serra Gaucha, Serra do Sudeste, Campanha, and Vale dos Vinhedos, all of which are located in southern Brazil at 29 degree south latitude.
Brazil has three certified geographic regions for wine – Vale dos Vinhedos DO ( Designation of origin), Pinto bandeira ( Indication of origin), and Altos Montes (IP = Indication of provenance) Certifications stipulate grape varieties, yields per hectare, chaptalisation, and yeast species allowed.
The preferred varieties for wine production are : cabernet sauvignon, merlot, tannat, pinot noir, tempranillo, touriga nacional for reds, and chardonnay, sauvignon blanc, pinot gris, viognier, gewurztraminer for whites. Experiemental varieties are also planted.
The soils vary between sandy mixed with granite, and limestone, clay with pebble stones, and alluvial. New vineyards are planted on high altitudes up to 1400 meters above sea level.
These regions are in the Plan Alto Catarinense abutting the border with Uruguay.
Generally, the most successful wines of Brazil are sparkling , which comply with legal regulations.
Sweetness levels of Brazilian sparkling wines are defined as follows: Nature 0 – 3 grams of residual sugar Extra brut 3 – 8 grams of residual sugar Brut 8-15 grams Sec 15 – 20 grams Demi-sec 20 – 60 grams Doce/Doux 60 +
The following sparkling wine producers are considered to be the best:
Cave Geisse
Enos Vinhos de Boutique Vallontano
Arte de Vinha
Guatambu
Vinha Buna
Domino do Brazil

FUNGI The fungus kingdom hold many remarkable sight, but is largely unexplored, except for a few cultivated species now widely available in western cultures. A walk in the woods reveals fungus fruiting bodies(aka mushrooms) sprouting from the soil and tree trunks. Some species thrive on decomposed trees , and wood chips naturally. Neither plant nor animal, mushrooms have confounded humans since antiquity. Now, they are a reminder of our tenuous place in an uncertain world. Most fungi are unseen varieties living in soil. They are in their microscopic “workshops” and play a crucial role using enzymes to break down organic compounds into nutrients for themselves, and inadvertently for plants and trees. Fungi and plants form mutually beneficial partnerships, provide us with valuable medications ( think of penicillin), as well as delectable foods. From harmless de-composers to insidious predators and pathogens fungi fill many roles. There are still many unexplored wild fungi. Several fungi are cultivated, of which some are grown on commercial scales in dark cellars, or specially created spaces on rich soils, others on tree trunks, and very few are gathered by mushroom hunters who sell their bounties to upscale restaurant for use in fresh form, or processors for drying or canning. Here is a selected list of cultivated mushrooms widely available in large urban centres but only in significantly large high end grocery stores: Portobello Shiitake Maitake Oyster mushroom Enoki Beech Crimini Black trumpet King trumpet Hedgehog Morel Chanterelle Cepe ) porcino in Italian, steinpilz in German Chicken of teh woods Wood blewit Shimeiji Button mushroom Common mushroom

BOOK REVIEW: WINE BITES

WINE BITES SIMPLE MORSELS THAT PAIR PERFECTLY WITH WINE Barbara Scott-Goodman Photographs Kate Mathis Chronicle Books, San Francisco 160 pages, $ 27.95 The author is a veteran food writer and wine lover who set out to create a book for people who enjoy both, and also like to entertain friends and family, and organize joyful events for other people. The photographer Kate Mathis has been able to capture the presentation of foods beautifully. Aesthetically they please, but more importantly, the cook or the host can learn how to best present his/her creations. North Americans are gradually becoming wine drinkers. This offers a lot of advantages to health and helps governments with public health policies curb costs. Wine is taxed more than beer, at least in Canada, which is unfair, but who can claim that tax on alcoholic beverages is fair? Regardless, Wine Bites is an inspiring book and should become a favourite for all who like to entertain but don’t particularly care to spend inordinate amounts of time to cook, serve and clean up after everyone has left. The author has created a lot of recipes that require little preparation. She recommends using half processed foods readily available in many grocery stores. The majority of recipes (grouped under snacks, dips and spreads, cheese, pizzas, bruschetta, toasts and sandwiches, fried bites, seafood bites, meats, small sweets and treats) are easy to put together and sound very appetizing, but best of all, each one goes well with wine from one region or another, or country. If you lie cheese, she recommends several that would enhance your enjoyment of wine, but also suggests which type of wine goes best with what type of cheese, e.g fresh chevre with rose, pinot grigio or pinot gris from Alsace, or Italy or California, and sauvignon blanc from Loire, or new Zealand, or Ontario, or California. This thoughtfully conceived book full appetizing and easy-to-produce recipes is treasure trove of enjoyment and entertainment. Buy it before it is out of print.

PROFESSOR B’S EVERYDAY WINE RECOMMENDATIONS

 The L C B O , world’s biggest alcoholic beverage purchaser, operates several divisions. They are:

General list ( stores offer a variety of beverages according to demand of their location. The ones in Toronto that carry the most complete inventories are on Yonge and Summerhill Queen’s Quay Sheppard and Bayview Most stores offer small selections of Vintages brands. Vintages division offers bi-weekly a selection carefully evaluated of wines and spirits while the inventory lasts. Vintages Essentials is a division of Vintages that carries selected brands always available. Vintages rare wines are offered six times a year All wines and spirits are produced in very small quantities and represent the highest quality standards as well as being the most famous. They have to be purchased online or by phone, and paid in advance. The products are then shipped to the store you specify. This convoluted system was designed to serve people living in remote locations. Consignment wines . These are products imported by Ontario agents and warehoused by the L C B O. These brands are promoted by the importing agency. You order, pay the agent and will either deliver free of charge or for a minimal charge anywhere in the province. None of the consignment products is listed by the L C B O, and may not be available once the lot has been sold. All orders must be by one six or 12 bottle case. Special imports must be imported either by your self, paid in advance to be delivered in four to eight weeks.

Here are my everyday wine recommendations for your enjoyment: White wines Grao Vasco, 2017, Dao, Portugal $ 8.95 General list 14977 Vina Esmeralda, 2019, Torres, Spain $ 13.95 (Order online galleonwines.ca ( minimum order one case of 12). Red wines Merlot/ Cabernet Sauvignon, 2018, Casal Thaulero, Abruzzo, Italy $9.00 621953 Finca Los Primos Malbec, 2018, Bodegas Bianchi, Mendoza, Argentina $ 9.85 572123 Bairrada Reserva, Alianca, Portugal $ 8.95 15874

They are: General list ( stores offer a variety of beverages according to demand of their location. The ones in Toronto that carry the most complete inventories are on Yonge and Summerhill Queen’s Quay Sheppard and Bayview Most stores offer small selections of Vintages brands. Vintages division offers bi-weekly a selection carefully evaluated of wines and spirits while the inventory lasts. Vintages Essentials is a division of Vintages that carries selected brands always available. Vintages rare wines are offered six times a year All wines and spirits are produced in very small quantities and represent the highest quality standards as well as being the most famous. They have to be purchased online or by phone, and paid in advance. The products are then shipped to the store you specify. This convoluted system was designed to serve people living in remote locations. Consignment wines . These are products imported by Ontario agents and warehoused by the L C B O. These brands are promoted by the importing agency. You order, pay the agent and will either deliver free of charge or for a minimal charge anywhere in the province. None of the consignment products is listed by the L C B O, and may not be available once the lot has been sold. All orders must be by one six or 12 bottle case. Special imports must be imported either by your self, paid in advance to be delivered in four to eight weeks. Here are my everyday wine recommendations for your enjoyment:

White wines Grao Vasco, 2017, Dao, Portugal $ 8.95 General list 14977 Vina Esmeralda, 2019, Torres, Spain $ 13.95 (Order online galleonwines.ca ( minimum order one case of 12). Red wines Merlot/ Cabernet Sauvignon, 2018, Casal Thaulero, Abruzzo, Italy $9.00 621953 Finca Los Primos Malbec, 2018, Bodegas Bianchi, Mendoza, Argentina $ 9.85 572123 Bairrada Reserva, Alianca, Portugal $ 8.95 15874

WINE AND CHEESE AFFINITIES

 The choice of wine and cheese is almost infinite. WINE AND CHEESE AFFINITIES The choice of wine and cheese is almost infinite. Wines colours, flavours, quality, and price change from light to rich and dense reds, roses, fortified, sweet, sparkling and everything in between. The fun part of any cheese and wine party is discovering new taste sensations while sipping, tasting, savouring and socializing. In large North American cities, cheese selection is impressive, especially at specialized stores. Most grocery chain stores carry a relatively small selection of processed cheeses. If the pairing is sit down and for educational purposes, cheeses , cubed baguettes or cheese biscuits suffice. For parties, colourful and appropriate fruits ( apples, pears, strawberries, blueberries, raspberries, kiwis ads gapes) are recommended. There are seven categorizes of cheeses: Soft ripened – Brie, Brie de Maux, Camembert, Belle Creme, Brise de Matin(Quebec) Comox Brie ( British Columbia). Pair with – Pinot noir, Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc, Gewurztraminer. Double and triple cream cheeses – Saint Andre, All wines recommended for soft ripened cheese can be used. Semi-soft cheeses – Fontina (Denmark, France, U S A), Morbier, Muenster, Reblochon, Port Salut, (France), Tallegio (Italy) , Friulano (voriginally from Italy but Quebec, Ontario versions are fine), Oka, (Quebec), Gouda, Edam ( Both from the Netherlands). California, Tasmania, Victoria or Ontario Chardonnays, Merlots from Chile, Bordeaux (St. Emilion), Pays d’Oc, Washington state, British Columbia, Tuscany, Riesling ( Alsace), Ontario, Oregon, Australia, or Pinot Gris from Alsace, Germany, or Switzerland. Semi-firm cheeses – aged eve’s, Etorki ( France), Brin d’Amour, Pecorino Toscano (Italy), Manchego (Spain), Alfred le Fermier ( Quebec), Piacere (Ontario), or, Cheddar wad first produced in England , but now Quebec, Ontario, Wisconsin and Oregon also produce this type of cheese), Emmenthal and Gruyere (Switzerland) ( eschew imitations from elsewhere), Comte (France) Mature oak aged Chardonnays from Burgundy, Ontario, ( when selecting Burgundy or Ontario chardonnays pay attention to vintage. Vintage quality varies drastically in both), Oregon, California, Oregon, Tasmania, Victoria (Australia), Argentina, Chile, Pinot noir, Syrah from the Rhone Valley, Shiraz from Australia, South Africa, British Columbia, Chile. Hard cheeses – Asiago, Parmigiano Reggiano, Grana Padano (Italy), (eschew imitations from anywhere else), five-year old cloth Cheddar from England. Shiraz from Australia, Syrah from France, Chile, red Bordeaux wines, cabernet sauvignon blends from Australia British Columbia, Malbec from Argentina or France), Valpolicella Riserva, Amarone della Valpolicella. Blue cheeses – Bleu de Bresse, Roquefort (France), Stilton (England), Maytag Blue ( U S A), Gorgonzola (Italy), Danish Blue Denmark), Bleu l’Ermite ( Quebec) Cabernet Franc from Ontario, California, Zinfandel ( California), Sauternes (France), Moscato d’Asti (Italy) Furmint , Tokay Three Puttonyos (Hungary), reds from Pays d’Oc (France), Chevre (Goat) Boucheron, Montrachet, Crottin de Chavignole (France), Goat cheese from Wisconsin, Ontario, New York state, Quebec. Rose wines from Provence, Rhone Valley (France), South Africa, Ontario, Italy, Pinot Gris from Alsace, Sauvignon blanc from New Zealand, Loire Valley ( France).

Wine colours, flavours, quality, and price change from light to rich and dense reds, roses, fortified, sweet, sparkling and everything in between. The fun part of any cheese and wine party is discovering new taste sensations while sipping, tasting, savouring and socializing. In large North American cities, cheese selection is impressive, especially at specialized stores. Most grocery chain stores carry a relatively small selection of processed cheeses. If the pairing is sit down and for educational purposes, cheeses , cubed baguettes or cheese biscuits suffice. For parties, colourful and appropriate fruits ( apples, pears, strawberries, blueberries, raspberries, kiwis ads gapes) are recommended. There are seven categorizes of cheeses: Soft ripened – Brie, Brie de Maux, Camembert, Belle Creme, Brise de Matin(Quebec) Comox Brie ( British Columbia). Pair with – Pinot noir, Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc, Gewurztraminer. Double and triple cream cheeses – Saint Andre, All wines recommended for soft ripened cheese can be used. Semi-soft cheeses – Fontina (Denmark, France, U S A), Morbier, Muenster, Reblochon, Port Salut, (France), Tallegio (Italy) , Friulano (voriginally from Italy but Quebec, Ontario versions are fine), Oka, (Quebec), Gouda, Edam ( Both from the Netherlands). California, Tasmania, Victoria or Ontario Chardonnays, Merlots from Chile, Bordeaux (St. Emilion), Pays d’Oc, Washington state, British Columbia, Tuscany, Riesling ( Alsace), Ontario, Oregon, Australia, or Pinot Gris from Alsace, Germany, or Switzerland. Semi-firm cheeses – aged eve’s, Etorki ( France), Brin d’Amour, Pecorino Toscano (Italy), Manchego (Spain), Alfred le Fermier ( Quebec), Piacere (Ontario), or, Cheddar wad first produced in England , but now Quebec, Ontario, Wisconsin and Oregon also produce this type of cheese), Emmenthal and Gruyere (Switzerland) ( eschew imitations from elsewhere), Comte (France) Mature oak aged Chardonnays from Burgundy, Ontario, ( when selecting Burgundy or Ontario chardonnays pay attention to vintage. Vintage quality varies drastically in both), Oregon, California, Oregon, Tasmania, Victoria (Australia), Argentina, Chile, Pinot noir, Syrah from the Rhone Valley, Shiraz from Australia, South Africa, British Columbia, Chile. Hard cheeses – Asiago, Parmigiano Reggiano, Grana Padano (Italy), (eschew imitations from anywhere else), five-year old cloth Cheddar from England. Shiraz from Australia, Syrah from France, Chile, red Bordeaux wines, cabernet sauvignon blends from Australia British Columbia, Malbec from Argentina or France), Valpolicella Riserva, Amarone della Valpolicella. Blue cheeses – Bleu de Bresse, Roquefort (France), Stilton (England), Maytag Blue ( U S A), Gorgonzola (Italy), Danish Blue Denmark), Bleu l’Ermite ( Quebec) Cabernet Franc from Ontario, California, Zinfandel ( California), Sauternes (France), Moscato d’Asti (Italy) Furmint , Tokay Three Puttonyos (Hungary), reds from Pays d’Oc (France), Chevre (Goat) Boucheron, Montrachet, Crottin de Chavignole (France), Goat cheese from Wisconsin, Ontario, New York state, Quebec. Rose wines from Provence, Rhone Valley (France), South Africa, Ontario, Italy, Pinot Gris from Alsace, Sauvignon blanc from New Zealand, Loire Valley ( France).

BEST GRAINS TO PROMOTE HEALTH

 THE BEST GRAINS TO PROMOTE HEALTH Grains represent the foundation of nutrition. Various grain varieties grow all over he world pending climate and soil conditions. Rarely small pockets of populations survive without consuming grain products e.g Inuits, northern climate First nations in Canada and Arctic territories. Grains are the fruit or seeds of edible cereal. Plants supply grains with nutrients from the soil , water and through photosynthesis. Whole grains contain the bran and kernel. They remain in the stomach longer and are more satisfying. The following are grains different regions of the world – rice, oats, corn, teff, sorghum, wheat, quinoa, kamut, etc. Wheat grows best in temperate to hot climate regions, teff on the other hand requires hot climate, quinoa thrive in South- and Central American countries; rice needs hot and humid weather. Scientists have been trying and continue to try to cross breed grains with suitable characteristics to grow in arid regions so as to combat predicted food shortages due to population growth in developing counties. Grains enhance soups, stews, can be added to porridge, cooked in a variety of ways to enrich meat, poultry, fish and seafood species. Cooled cooked grains in salads change the flavour and texture providing new taste sensations to neutral-tasting ingredients. Whole grains must be part of a healthy diet; they contain carbohydrates, energy, proteins for growth and cell repair, including several minerals that our bodies need to fight diseases and provide immunity to many other illnesses. Teff, barley, sorghum, amaranth and quinoa are lesser known grains in western cultures, but of late have become relatively popular mainly due to growth of immigration in Canada. Teff is a tiny grain (think of poppy seeds), rich in calcium, magnesium, protein, fibre, potassium, and is gluten-free. Teff cooks quickly and Ethiopians prepare it link flat breads to absorb the juices of succulent dishes. Barley in western diets is underrated and underappreciated. It can be prepared as any other whole grain and in porridge. Of all the grains, barley contains the highest amount of fibre (17 -30 per cent pending on variety), high amounts of antioxidants, minerals, potassium, zinc, and carbohydrates. Sorghum dates back 80 centuries in Egypt and was cultivated in Ethiopia and Sudan . Several varieties exist. You can prepare sorghum like any other whole grain. Add it to stews or soups and even use it mixed with wheat flour. Amaranth is an old grain with a long culinary history in Mexico but it is believed to have originated in Peru. It was a a major grain popular with Aztecs. Amaranth is rich in protein, carbohydrates, fibre, potassium, iron and magnesium, but low in calories. ( 125 calories per 125 gram). Cooking amaranth is easy. Just use a ratio of three to four to one water, and boil for 15 – 20 minutes. It can also be prepared pilaf style, or in the oven to sprinkle over salads. Quinoa can be prepared as pilaf-style or as natives in South America do. Processed grains (bran-removed) are white, cook faster, easier and faster to digest with a smooth mouth feel, but are less nutritious. Surprisingly, most grocery stores sell the processed versions of grains that are generally packaged and branded. Those who want more nutritious grains must make an effort to seek them, and search for sources that offer breads baked with whole grains.

Grains are the fruit or seeds of edible cereal. Plants supply grains with nutrients from the soil , water and through photosynthesis. Whole grains contain the bran and kernel. They remain in the stomach longer and are more satisfying. The following are grains different regions of the world – rice, oats, corn, teff, sorghum, wheat, quinoa, kamut, etc. Wheat grows best in temperate to hot climate regions, teff on the other hand requires hot climate, quinoa thrive in South- and Central American countries; rice needs hot and humid weather. Scientists have been trying and continue to try to cross breed grains with suitable characteristics to grow in arid regions so as to combat predicted food shortages due to population growth in developing counties. Grains enhance soups, stews, can be added to porridge, cooked in a variety of ways to enrich meat, poultry, fish and seafood species. Cooled cooked grains in salads change the flavour and texture providing new taste sensations to neutral-tasting ingredients. Whole grains must be part of a healthy diet; they contain carbohydrates, energy, proteins for growth and cell repair, including several minerals that our bodies need to fight diseases and provide immunity to many other illnesses. Teff, barley, sorghum, amaranth and quinoa are lesser known grains in western cultures, but of late have become relatively popular mainly due to growth of immigration in Canada. Teff is a tiny grain (think of poppy seeds), rich in calcium, magnesium, protein, fibre, potassium, and is gluten-free. Teff cooks quickly and Ethiopians prepare it link flat breads to absorb the juices of succulent dishes. Barley in western diets is underrated and underappreciated. It can be prepared as any other whole grain and in porridge. Of all the grains, barley contains the highest amount of fibre (17 -30 per cent pending on variety), high amounts of antioxidants, minerals, potassium, zinc, and carbohydrates. Sorghum dates back 80 centuries in Egypt and was cultivated in Ethiopia and Sudan . Several varieties exist. You can prepare sorghum like any other whole grain. Add it to stews or soups and even use it mixed with wheat flour. Amaranth is an old grain with a long culinary history in Mexico but it is believed to have originated in Peru. It was a a major grain popular with Aztecs. Amaranth is rich in protein, carbohydrates, fibre, potassium, iron and magnesium, but low in calories. ( 125 calories per 125 gram). Cooking amaranth is easy. Just use a ratio of three to four to one water, and boil for 15 – 20 minutes. It can also be prepared pilaf style, or in the oven to sprinkle over salads. Quinoa can be prepared as pilaf-style or as natives in South America do. Processed grains (bran-removed) are white, cook faster, easier and faster to digest with a smooth mouth feel, but are less nutritious. Surprisingly, most grocery stores sell the processed versions of grains that are generally packaged and branded. Those who want more nutritious grains must make an effort to seek them, and search for sources that offer breads baked with whole grains.

BEER CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

BEER – DEMOGRAPHICS ARE CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS Beer is still world’s most popular alcoholic beverage but consumption patterns are shifting from developed countries to developing regions. ( See per capita consumption chart) When the first settlers set foot in North America, indigenous populations were oblivious of alcohol and its effects on the body. One of the first industries in Canada was brewing in Quebec. Since then thousands, if not millions, were employed by breweries, and all related industries. Beer is a relatively simple low-alcohol ( average five per cent ABV) carbonated beverage containing mainly water, malted barley, hops and yeast. The Bavarian Beer Edict declares that only these ingredients must constitute beer, but modern technology has created several technique to refine or change both the mouthfeel and taste. Today, you can buy low-alcohol (light) beer ( two-and-a-half to four per cent ABV), standard *five ABV) “dry beer or high-alcohol) up to seven ABV, and up to 14 1/2 ABV. There two main styles of beer lagers and ales. Generally, lagers are light, whitish to yellow, slightly bitter, refreshing, food-friendly, whereas ales tend to be heavy, brow to dark brown, sometimes close to black in colour, texturally more pronounced and more flavourful. Stouts and porters are in this category and preferred mostly in Britain and Caribbean couturiers formerly “governed” by British authorities. While world’s population is constantly increasing, developing country populations are increasing almost exponentially, while those of developed countries are maintaining their levels, and some are declining. Income levels are also changing. Formerly, “communist countries” alcohol consumption, especially beer is increasing, while in developed countries the reverse is taking place. In these societies people seem to be switching to wine or spirits or low-alcohol alco-pops. Before 1970’s, the top beer consuming countries were – Germany, and The Czech Republic, followed by Belgium and several other European countries. Now the top per capita consuming countries are still Czech Republic and Germany, the Seychelles ranks seventh, Namibia eight, and Canada 32nd with 56 litres and Cambodia in 23rd position with 73 litres. These swings indicate how demographics, wealth, and religion change consumption patterns. The trend seems to be less quantity and better quality everywhere including North America. Before 1990’s, only three (Molson, Labatt’s and Carling-O’Keefe controlled almost the total consumption. Carling-O’Keefe no longer exists, Molson is merged with Coors in the U S A, and Labatt’s is owned by a Belgian mega brewer. Now with encouragement of provincial governments in Canada, hundreds of of small breweries churn out flavourful and imaginative beers. The same is true in teh U S A. Big American breweries with deep pockets survive, are profitable partly due to marketing, cost efficiencies and reduced distribution costs, while their main-stream beers offer watery off dry sweetish flavours small breweries market bold products that appeal to the beer enthusiast. The L C B O offers the following flavourful beers: Tatra, Poland 500 ml. can, $ 2.20 Czechvar Premium Lager, The Czech Republic, 500 ml. can $ 2.75 Grolsch Premium Lager, The Netherlands 4x 450 ml bottles $ 12.95 Pilsener Urquell, The Czech Republic, 500 ml., can, $ 3.10 Holsten Premium Pilsner, Germany 500 ml., can $ 2.15 Zywiec, Poland, 500 ml., bottle $ 2.65 Locker Room Lager, Post Game Brewing, Canada 473 ml., can, $ 2.75 Northbound Lager, Side Launch Brewery, Canada 500 ml., can $ 3.25 AGD Lager, Big Rock Brewing Company, Canada 500 ml., can $ 2.50 WORLD PER CAPITA BEER CONSUMPTION ( 2018 DATA) The Czech Republic 192 litres Austria 106 litres Germany 101 litres Poland 99 Litres Romania 98 Litres Seychelles 90 Litres Spain 86 litres

TOMATO – THE VERSATILE BERRY

TOMATO – THE VERSATILE BERRY

Tomato, the edible berry of solanum lycipersicum originated in South- and Central America.

Aztecs have been growing, cooking, and eating tomatoes what they called tomatl, for centuries before Spanish hordes arrived. They transplanted it to Spain, and from there the tomato spread all over Europe.

Today, tomatoes are grown in all temperate climate countries all over the world.

In cold climate countries production is limited to greenhouses.

Greenhouse tomatoes look great but taste less impressive than naturally grown specimens in hot climes.

Worldwide there are 15 000 varieties, of which 3000 are heirloom plants, that look appealing and taste delicious.

In Ontario 300 species are grown , but grocery stores carry only a few. Now, more and more tomatoes are grown in greenhouses.

American breeders spend a lot of time to breed species with thick skins to withstand long distance transportation. Most fail the taste test, but commercially viable and because of low prices, they sell well.

Lately, cherry tomatoes have become popular due to their taste mouth feel.

San Marzano, close to Naples, Italy, is world famous for its tomatoes. The seeds have been exported to several countries but they never taste as satisfying and intriguing as those grown in San Marzano.

Canned San Marzano tomatoes are occasionally available in grocery stores.

These tomatoes yield tasty sauces when cooked properly.

The most popular varieties in Ontario are – Roma ( aka Italian plum) (suitable for sauce, and salads due to their high acidity and low seed count); cherry tomatoes, sweetish and good for salads, snaking and as a garnish; beefsteak are juicy, robust and tangy, appropriate for pizzas, BLT sandwiches, salads and cooking.

Ontario grown tomatoes, especially those from Leamington, burst with deep red colour, are juicy, and taste intense.

In Canada the growing season is short ( 80 – 90 days) and now greenhouse tomatoes are becoming popular year round mostly due their visual appeal and availability, but not so much for taste.

The Dutch have perfected the science of greenhouse tomatoes and export all over northern Europe.

Buy Ontario field grown tomatoes, preferably heirloom, when available, for an unforgettable taste experience.

PROFESSOR B’S EVERYDAY WINE RECOMMENDATIONS

PROFESSOR B’S EVERYDAY WINE RECOMMENDATIONS

Wine aromas, flavour, colour, mouth feel and aftertaste change according to the source of grapes, vintner’s care and knowledge, winemaker’s ability, vintage, and distribution methods.

While other alcoholic beverages more or less taste the same all the time every batch of wine changes according to when it was bottled and how it was matured.

It can be argues that wine offers infinite flavours and wine enthusiasts benefit from its versatility in entrancing food enjoyment.

Wine is creatively low in alcohol ( 8 – 15 per cent ABV) and if consumed in moderation is beneficial for your health.

Here are my recommendations:

Red wines

Casale Vecchio Lot 23 Momtepulciano D’Abruzzo, 2019, Fantini (Organic)

Italy

$ 10.95

Vinecrafter Caberet Sauvignon, KWW, South Africa

$ 9.95 553867

Syrah, 2018, Porcupine Ridge, South Africa

$ 15.95 595280

White winemaker’s

Gewurztramier Reserve, 2018, Willm Alsace, France

$ 17.95 269852

Foritfied wine

Solera Reserve Dry Amontillado Los Arcos, E.Lustau, Xerez de la Frontera, Spain

$ 17.95 9191

PROFESSOR B’S EVERYDAY WINE RECOMMENDATIONS

PROFESSOR B’S EVERYDAY WINES RECOMMENDATIONS

( All wines are only available at L C B O stores in Ontario. They may be available in other provinces or countries.

These recommendations are for chardonnay and garnacha wines from Spain.

Chardonnay, native to Burgundy, France, is now world’s most widely planted white grape variety.

It grows best in cool climate regions e.g Burgundy, Ontario, British Columbia, high altitude vineyards in Argentina, California, New Zealand, Tasmania, and South Australia.

“Chardonnay is made in the winery” goes the saying, implying that it can be fashioned to market demand from extra dry, to off dry, and even sweet. It may be oaked or unoaked, pending on style and/or terroir.

Connoisseurs prefer bone dry pure chardonnay Chablis from Burgundy of Cote de Beaune both sub-regions of Burgundy.

Here grapes are grown in chalky soils strewn with seafood shells from eons ago.

Estate Grown Chardonnay, 2018, Malivoire, Ontario

$ 19.95

Vintages essential Number 573147

Les Venerables Vieille Vignes, La Chablisienne, Burgundy, France

$ 27.95 215525

Chardonnay, 2017, El Enemigo, Argentina

Vintages

$ 23.95 482984

Red wines

Garnacha (aka grenache noir) originated in Spain and is now experiencing popularity with many winemakers in many hot climate countries.

Garnnacha was first planted in Roussillon, southern France, long ago, when Spain ruled the region, and today it is called grenache.

There are tree species of grenache – -noir, blanc, and gris, of which the noir is most planted in both Spain and France. It resists wind and tolerates drought better than many other varieties, ripens late, and must be pruned severely to produce little

Grenache noir wines can be dark when vinted properly, dry, deeply flavoured and full bodied.

Spain, especially Aragon, produces fine garnacha wines

Grenache is also planted in Australia, and California.

It used to be very popular in Australia, but now shiraz is also popular.

A lot of grenache ends up in franc in rose wines, but in Chateauneuf-Du-Pape it can produce legendary wines when carefully artfully blended with several other varieties.

Garnacha wine recommendations

Garnacha, Castillo de Monseran, Carinena

$ 10.95 L C B O generl list 73395

Tinta Garnacha, Borsao, Campo de Borja

12.15 386961

Sangre de Toro Garnacha, Torres, Catalunya

$ 11.15 6585